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NP La revista ‘European Zoological Journal’ publica un estudio sobre el impacto de la mixomatosis en las densidades de liebres en Castilla y León

NP La revista ‘European Zoological Journal’ publica un estudio sobre el impacto de la mixomatosis en las densidades de liebres en Castilla y León

Enviado por Fundación Artemisan el 05-05-2022

El estudio confirma la reducción en las densidades de liebres en los correderos de Castilla y León tras la llegada de la mixomatosis. Los brotes de mixomatosis en liebres se detectaron por primera vez en España en 2018 y, desde entonces, la enfermedad se ha extendido en la mayor parte de comunidades autónomas, incluyendo Castilla y León, en la que la caza de...
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 La revista ‘European Zoological Journal’ ha publicado un estudio sobre el impacto de la mixomatosis en las densidades de liebres en Castilla y León, realizado por la Federación Castellano Leonesa de Galgos y Fundación Artemisan, en colaboración con la Universidad de León.

El estudio confirma la reducción en las densidades de liebres en los correderos de Castilla y León tras la llegada de la mixomatosis. Los brotes de mixomatosis en liebres se detectaron por primera vez en España en 2018 y, desde entonces, la enfermedad se ha extendido en la mayor parte de comunidades autónomas, incluyendo Castilla y León, en la que la caza de liebre con galgo a campo abierto es una de las modalidades más arraigadas.

Hace varios años, la Federación de Galgos creó un grupo de trabajo bajo la dirección de Óscar Hernández para la recogida de datos durante las jornadas de campo. En este estudio, cada cuadrilla participante registró el número de liebres vistas, tanto sanas como enfermas, y la superficie de los correderos, para de esta forma determinar la densidad de liebres y el impacto de la enfermedad.

Los datos publicados corresponden a dos temporadas de caza consecutivas: la primera cuando se detectaron brotes por primera vez (temporada 1, octubre 2019-enero 2020) y la segunda cuando la enfermedad se propagó por gran parte del territorio (temporada 2, octubre 2020- enero 2021).

Así, se recopilaron datos de 1.102 cacerías de 178 cotos de caza, demostrándose que la densidad de liebres disminuyó significativamente, de 12,7 liebres/100 ha en la temporada 1 a 4,7 liebres/100 ha en la temporada 2. La investigación determinó una reducción del 62,7% en la densidad de liebres en Castilla y León tras la propagación de la mixomatosis.

El porcentaje de liebres sospechosas de estar afectadas por mixomatosis (enfermas y muertas) por cacería fue mayor en la temporada 1 (14,4 %) en comparación con la temporada 2 (10,7 %), y para ambas temporadas esta proporción fue mayor cuando se inició la temporada de caza (20,7 %, octubre), en comparación con los meses restantes (4,7 %, noviembre-enero). Sin embargo, la proporción de cotos de caza afectados aumentó del 44% en la temporada 1 al 66,7% en la temporada 2.

Para Carlos Sánchez, director de investigación de Fundación Artemisan, "este estudio tiene un gran valor por la aplicación directa de los resultados, dado que los galgueros están tomando decisiones de gestión en base a la monitorización que ellos mismos realizan. En la temporada 2020-2021, más del 50% de cotos participantes ajustaron la caza porque las densidades de liebres eran bajas, lo que demuestra el compromiso que el colectivo tiene por la especie, piedra angular de este deporte. Además, muchos galgueros se han unido al Observatorio Cinegético, en el que se realizan censos de liebres por la noche en esta época del año".

Dado que es probable que la mixomatosis se vuelva endémica en las liebres, es decir, que no se erradique por completo y sigamos teniendo brotes cada cierto tiempo, esta colaboración entre galgueros y científicos es más necesaria que nunca y, de hecho, el grupo de trabajo continúa recogiendo datos, yendo de la mano también con la Junta de Castilla y León.

El artículo se puede descargar en el siguiente enlace:
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/24750263.2022.2037759

Hernández, Ó., Sánchez-García, C., & Tizado, E. J. (2022). Impact of myxomatosis on densities of Iberian hares (Lepus granatensis) in North-western Spain: implications for management and sustainable hunting. The European Zoological Journal, 89(1), 204-209.


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